C8: Sports Biomechanics & Human Performance



Alireza Karimi1, Toshihiro Sera1, Susumu Kudo1, Kazuhiro Nakashima1, Reza Razaghi2, Mahdi Navidbakhsh3

1Kyushu University, Japan;
2Basir Health Center;
3Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran

Sports-related injuries provide a combination of extensive and inevitable problem as they are responsible for 25% of severe eye injuries worldwide. Most of these injuries are preventable if the information regarding the detail of injury is available. Each sport induces its own injury to the eye owing to the variation in the ball’s size, speed, and mechanical properties. In this study, various types of ocular trauma in relation to certain sports, such as handball, football, volleyball, futsal, and basketball, were numerically investigated. So far the injury to the eye components due to the ball impact has not been well determined. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the stresses and deformations of the human eye components, including the cornea, aqueous body, iris, lens, intra and extraconal fats, sclera, retina, ciliary body, vitreous body, optic nerve, and muscles, attributable to ball impact via a Lagrangian-Eulerian computational coupling model. Nonlinear dynamic Finite Element (FE) simulations  were accomplished using the explicit dynamics FE code to simulate the collision of the ball and the eye. The stress results were found to be various according to different sports. The cornea, aqueous, iris, lens, and sclera experienced the highest amount of stress when impacted by soccer balls. Furthermore, the intra and extraconal fats, ciliary body, vitreous body, muscle, and optic nerve bear the highest stress once impacted by basketball. The results also showed that basketball triggers the highest displacement in the optic nerve with 0.458 μm compared to the other balls. The examined sports based on the highest stresses/injury induced in the eye components were ranked in order as, basketball, futsal, volleyball, football, and handball, from the highest to the lowest that would put injury to the eye. It is, therefore, suggested to wear goggles in these sports to minimize the amount of injury. 

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